Executive-based Model 

Entities with strong state or county executive support or leadership that have existed over several administrations. These systems often have reliable revenue streams for operating expenses and routinely reside in secure, non-partisan government offices. This arrangement safeguards these systems against sudden political or economic changes. Example: Center for Innovation Through Data Intelligence (CIDI), NYC


Agency-based Model 

Typically originate and reside in departments of health and human services (HHS). Most agency-based models were originally built to help caseworkers manage their workload by providing a clearer picture of clients that utilize services from multiple government systems and programs. Over time, these sites initiate further data sharing agreements with other agencies, like school districts or state education departments, streamline legal processes, and promote the use of integrated data for policy analysis more broadly.  Example: Department of Human Services (DHS), Allegheny County, PA


University-based Model

Do not typically have formal governing boards. Instead, they develop a research agenda that is based on their funding revenues, research interests, and partner-agency needs.  Example: Chapin Hall at the University of Chicago

For more examples and information on the benefits of each model, see our Expert Panel report.